Growth hormone (somatotropin, GH) is a hormonal substance produced by the eosinophil cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion of this hormone takes place in the projections, and their frequency and intensity depends on age and gender.
What is the effect of growth hormone?
Growth hormone stimulates the growth of the body, acting on the epiphyseal cartilage of long bones and accelerates the synthesis of body proteins. It also accelerates the burning of fats and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver, which increases the level of blood sugar. It also affects the mineral and water balance of the body. The largest production of growth hormone occurs in children and adolescents during development. In adults, growth hormone is produced about 5 times a day – the largest of its release to the blood occurs during sleep.
Deficiency and excess of growth hormone
Growth hormone deficiency may be associated with genetic defects and congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system. It can also be the result of pituitary tumors, brain irradiation, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, hemochromatosis or head trauma. The symptoms of growth hormone deficiency are growth problems (lower growth, dwarfism) and the development of various organs of the body. In boys with low levels of growth hormone, the penis is clearly smaller. Growth and sexual development are inhibited, hands and feet are small, fatty tissue accumulates in the area of the abdomen. In adults, growth hormone deficiency causes a decrease in vital energy, emotional disorders (depression, drug states, alienation and isolation from the environment), abdominal obesity, and skin dryness and thinness.
Excess growth hormone can be the result of a pituitary tumor. In children, this condition causes excessive growth (gigantism), and in adults, acromegaly, or excessive growth of the jaw, jaws, hands and feet. It may be accompanied by excessive sweating, bone and joint pain and eye problems.
When is growth hormone taken?
Picture Credit: Alora Griffiths